Natural Supplements & Vitamins Blog

Chemo preventive effect of methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale nut shell on ultra-violet radiation induced skin damage

Anacardium occidentale nut shell liquid has been used for decades especially by natives of South America, Asia and Africa in the treatment of topical skin diseases, abrasion and cancerous ulcers amongst others. Chronic exposure to sunlight can lead to skin damages including erythema, edema, hyperplasia, formation of sunburn cells, photo-aging, suppression of the immune system and skin cancer. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of methanol extract of A. occidentale nut shell liquid on UV radiation (UVR) induced skin damage and cancer initiation. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) analysis was carried out on the extract. Skin damage was...
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Assessment of anti-hepatitis B virus activity of endemic medicinal plants from Socotra Island

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of liver disease and a possible worldwide source of severe morbidity and mortality. The current standard therapy using interferons or antiviral agents is not successful in all cases and is associated with severe side effects. Consequently, the development of new medicines for the treatment of HBV is still relevant. This experimental study was therefore performed to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of 10 endemic medicinal plants from Socotra Island which represents a distinctive region of Yemen. Socotra Island is renowned for its biodiversity with significant flora with globally important plants. The...
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Medicinal plants used against malaria by traditional therapists in malaria endemic areas of the Ségou region, Mali

West Africa is one of the regions in Africa with the highest levels of malaria transmission a descriptive study was carried out to inventorise the medicinal plants traditionally used against malaria by traditional therapists in five malaria endemic areas of the Ségou region, in Mali. Sixty-five traditional therapists were randomly selected to be part of the study. Questions were posed using semi-structured interviews, which solicited information on species used, plant organs used, as well as methods of preparation and routes of administration of decoctions. Results indicate that 69 species distributed over 27 families are used to treat malaria. The most represented...
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Cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis of Artemisia judaica and A. sieberi in Saudi Arabia

Cancer and microbial infectious diseases are considered a global threat. Plants have been investigated across the world to exploit their potential anticancer and antimicrobial effective agents. In this study, two medicinal plant species native to Saudi Arabia, namely; Artemisia judaica and Artemisia sieberi were screened to assess their antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial potential activities as well as phytochemical compositions. The collected aerial parts were extracted by maceration with methanol. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were investigated using the MTT and MIC assays, respectively. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential were assessed respectively by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. The...
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Cardioprotective effects of animal grade piperazine citrate on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in wistar rats: Biochemical and histopathological evaluation

The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of animal grade piperazine citrate on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac marker enzymes and histopathological changes of the cardiac muscle. Isoproterenol administration showed significant (P<0.001) increase in the serum levels of cardiac injury markers (creatine kinase-MB and troponin-I), 358.98 ± 7.68 iu/l and 13.16 ± 0.35 ng/ml compared to the normal control group of 291.58 ± 3.56 iu/l and 9.66 ± 0.20 ng/ml respectively. Pretreatment with 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight of piperazine citrate showed a decrease in the troponin-I levels when compared with the isoproterenol group;...
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Development and validation of UV- Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC method for the analysis of raw material and formulations of Aceclofenac

The purpose of the study is to develop and validate method for assay of Aceclofenac in tablet dosage forms using ultra violet spectrophotometry (UV) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. A method was developed and validated for analysis of Aceclofenac using UV technique with methanol and phosphate buffer 7.4 as solvent. The HPLC analysis was conducted using two mobile phases, that is, “A” as Acetonitrile: Methanol (80:20 v/v) and “B” as Acetonitrile: methanol: NH3 solution (225:50:1 v/v/v). The method was used for assay determination for tablets dosage forms and results were found to be in compliance with official standards. Validation...
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Ethnobotanical study of plants used against onchocerciasis in the far north region of Cameroon

Despite the multitude of studies which have shown the use of medicinal plants in the management of parasitic diseases, little data was available on the plants used against onchocerciasis. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out among traditional healers in the Far North region of Cameroon. Studies were conducted from July 2017 to May 2018 through direct interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire taking into consideration the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents as well as their knowledge in the art of onchocerciasis and parasitic infections treatment using plant recipes. A total of one hundred people were interviewed in villages found in the Far North...
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A survey of the aflatoxin level and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in poultry feed mills from different geopolitical zones of Nigeria

Aflatoxin contamination of poultry feeds in Nigeria is a common problem in most feed mills. A survey on the distribution of aflatoxin in feed mills from different parts of Nigeria was carried out. The aflatoxin concentration in most feed mills from the North-western part of Nigeria was low compared to the concentration in the feed mills from the South-eastern part. The total aflatoxin level in three feed mills (B, C and D) out of the four feed mills sampled in North-West ranged from 8.4 ± 2.7-13 ± 4.2 μg/kg. However, feed mill A, had higher concentration of aflatoxin 120 ± 38...
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Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of dried pods of Prosopis Africana

Evolving resistant microbial strains have posed a great challenge on antibacterial chemotherapy in recent times. Search for novel antimicrobial agents has therefore remained a highly prospective area of research, especially those of plant origin. To this end, Prosopis africana pod used in West Africa in traditional medicine was evaluated for phytochemical constituents using standard procedures. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Discs were impregnated with 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Test organisms were wild strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia...
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Environmental reporting, accountability and governance of local governments: An Italian multiple case study

This article aims to investigate the complex interrelationship existing between reporting, accountability and governance of municipalities. More in detail, the paper attempts to identify the internal and external conditions inducing municipalities to keep environmental reports (Research Question 1) and to assess the impact of environmental reporting on the accountability of the municipalities’ governance (Research Question 2). Multiple Case Study Research is conducted by administering semi-structured interviews to bureaucrats belonging to Accounting or Environmental Department of twelve municipality partners originally involved in CLEAR-Life project. The analysis shows the link between environmental reporting, governance and accountability, fostering the identification of some important factors...
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In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava (Guava) leaves extract on carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae causing multi-drug resistant systemic infections

Systemic bacterial infections affect almost all part of the human body systems leading to infections such as urinary tract infections, septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia, peritonitis and gastritis. Carbapenems have been used as drug of choice in the treatment of systemic infections. Studies have indicated that Enterobacteriaceae are producing enzymes such as carbapenemases, which inactivate carbapenems.  There  is  limited  treatment  option  for  systemic  infections  caused  by  carbapenem- resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Systemic infections keep increasing; hence, the determination of the effective treatment options of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is important for quality healthcare delivery. In this laboratory studies, agar well diffusion and well microplate dilution of the...
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Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used in snakebites in North Western Nigeria

The incidence of snake bite in rural West Africa is reportedly high with an 11–17% mortality rate. Nigeria has one third of the cases for snake bite cases in this region.Thus, most tribes in North-western part of Nigeria depend on medicinal plants for snakebites. However, it appears that a gap exists on documentation of these plants especially tropical flora used in the management of snake bite. This led to increase depletion of medicinal plant resources and knowledge of their traditional use. Consequently, this survey provided knowledge and data on medicinal plants use in management of snake bite which will help retard...
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Antibacterial, total phenols, antioxidant, and fatty acids of the lyophilized body fat of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812) from farm in Acre State, Brazil

Podocnemis expansa (Podocnemididae) is a chelonian of suborder Pleurodira and is popularly known as Amazon turtle. The animal’s body fat was removed from the farm in Xapuri city in Acre State, Brazil. The fat was lyophilized and the oil was extracted by the Soxhlet method using hexane, as a solvent. The fatty acids majority, identified and quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, were: Arachidonic (25.2%), oleic (ω9, 17.6%), palmitic (ω7, 13.5%), stearic (11.9%) and linoleic (ω6, 9.5%). These, are essential for human health and can be helpful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, psoriasis, improving symptoms of depression, Alzheimer's disease,...
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Screening open source traditional Chinese medicine extracts for growth-inhibiting properties towards Acinetobacter baumannii

Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and other pathogenic bacteria are a worldwide concern due to their increasingly prevalent multidrug resistance. World leaders and health organizations across the globe have voiced their concerns over antibiotic resistance and the critical need for the development of novel antibiotics. Although the number of new antibiotic drugs entering the marketplace in recent years has been limited, it is encouraging to note that there are many initiatives in academia, industry, and government focused on this issue. This study outlines the investigation of a publicly available library of Traditional Chinese Medicine extracts to discover new compounds that could...
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Protective effect of piperine from Piper chaba fruits on LPS-induced inflammation in human intestinal cell line

Piper chaba is a flowering vine in the family of piperaceae. It is a spicy plant widely used as food and herbal medicine in the South and Southeast Asian countries. The study evaluated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of a major alkaloid extract, piperine, from P. chaba fruits on human colonic epithelial cells. The effects of piperine extract on cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition, and immunomodulation on inflammatory genes were evaluated in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model in Caco-2 cells. T-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Piperine, in the doses of non-cytotoxicity (1, 10, 50 µg/ml), reversed effect of...
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Consensus level in the traditional management of diabetes and chemical potentiality of plants from north Sudanese, Burkina Faso

Diabetes, has become a public health problem whose prevalence is increasing in subsahelian Africa. The present study aimed to determine the consensus level of plant use and their antidiabetic potentiality. Thus, a semi-structured interview carried out from May 2014 to April 2018 with 120 traditional healers allowed retaining nine species after selection according to the frequency of citation and the bibliographic review: Crescentia cujete L., Ficus ingens (Miq.) Miq. Ficus platyphylla Delile, Lannea acida A. Rich., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel, Feretia apodanthera Delile, Cassia italica (Mill.) Lam. ex F.W. Andrews and Boscia angustifolia A. Rich....
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Antimalarial potential and phytochemical composition of fractions of Lippia kituiensis Vatke (Verbenaceae) growing in Northern Tanzania

Despite past decades of steady advances in the fight against Malaria, statistics show that the disease is still a threat to human health. Previous successes in the development of antimalarial drugs from medicinal plants have fuelled research in this area. However, antimalarial studies on fractionated extracts from such plants have progressed slowly. This study reports the antimalarial potential of fractions from Lippia kituiensis Vatke, for the first time. Column chromatography was used during fractionation. Antiplasmodial assay against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) plasmodium strains were done using hypoxanthine incorporation assay. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of fractions against...
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Assessment of acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Camellia hakodae Ninh leaves aqueous extracts in experimental animals

Camellia hakodae Ninh (CHN) is an ornamental plant of Vietnam, whose extracts is used as a potential phytotherapeutic beverage due to its good improvement in the immune system, reduction of inflammation and assisting the treatment of some chronic diseases. CHN production may be useful for health during this coronavirus epidemic period. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of CHN leaf in mice. In the acute toxicity study, CHN leaf at doses from 24.0 to 120.0 g/kg/day was given to 5 groups of Swiss mice by oral administration (equivalent in humans is 0.2 to...
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Prevalence and gene sequencing of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhi from South-East Nigeria

Enteric fever is a systemic disease classified into typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins are usually the drugs of choice in the management of Salmonella infections. Previous reports have indicated common occurrence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) including resistance to β-lactams and fluoroquinolones. However, there is paucity of information on the genetic determinants of resistance to β-lactam and fluoroquinolones from S. enterica in Southeast Nigeria. Salmonella enterica serovars were identified and screened (25 each from unrelated patients from the four hospitals). Resistant isolates were screened for ESBL phenotypically. Genomic and plasmid DNA were extracted by boiling and alkaline lysis,...
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Larvicidal activity of Juniperus procera extract against anopheles mosquito in in vitro, North Western Ethiopia

Mosquitoes are the major health threat as they transmit plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Since mosquitoes developed resistances towards insecticides, investigators are searching for alternative control measures. Bioactive plant chemicals have been identified to serve as a defense mechanism against insects’ larvae. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate larvicidal activities of Juniperus procera extracts in in vitro against 3rd to 4th instars larvae of Anopheles arabiensis. The leaves of the plant were collected from Fogera District and brought to Bahir Dar University where it was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, ethanol and acetone. The phytochemical screening was performed....
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